Are humans causing cancer in wild animals? Humans may influence cancer in many other species on the planet — ScienceDaily

As humans, we know that some of our activities can cause cancer to develop in our bodies. Smoking, poor diets, pollution, chemicals used as additives in food and personal hygiene products, and even too much sun are some of the things that contribute to an increased risk of cancer.

But, are human activities also causing cancer in wild animals? Are we oncogenic — a species that causes cancer in other species?

Researchers from Arizona State University’s School of Life Sciences think so and are urgently calling for research into this topic. In a paper published online today in “Nature Ecology & Evolution,” Mathieu Giraudeau and Tuul Sepp, both postdoctoral researchers in the lab of ASU life sciences professor Kevin McGraw, say that humans are changing the environment in a way that causes cancer in wild animal populations.

“We know that some viruses can cause cancer in humans by changing the environment that they live in — in their case, human cells — to make it more suitable for themselves,” said Sepp. “Basically, we are doing the same thing. We are changing the environment to be more suitable for ourselves, while these changes are having a negative impact on many species on many different levels, including the probability of developing cancer.”

In the paper, Giraudeau and Sepp and a team of international researchers, point out many pathways and previous scientific studies that show where human activities are already taking a toll on animals. These include chemical and physical pollution in our oceans and waterways, accidental release of radiation into the atmosphere from nuclear plants, and the accumulation of microplastics in both land- and water-based environments. In addition, exposure to pesticides and herbicides on farmlands, artificial light pollution, loss of genetic diversity and animals eating human food are known to cause health problems.

“Cancer in wild populations is a completely ignored topic and we wanted to stimulate research on this question,” shared Giraudeau. “We recently published several theoretical papers on this topic, but this time, we wanted to highlight the fact that our species can strongly influence the prevalence of cancer in many other species of our planet.

“Cancer has been found in all species where scientists have looked for it and human activities are known to strongly influence cancer rate in humans. So, this human impact on wild environments might strongly influence the prevalence of cancer in wild populations with additional consequences on ecosystem functioning,” he said.

Even something such as artificial light and light pollution, as well as food meant for humans, are negatively affecting wild animals.

Sepp said: “It is already known in human studies that obesity and nutrient deficiency can cause cancer, but these issues have been mostly overlooked in wild animals. At the same time, more and more wild species are in contact with anthropogenic food sources. In humans, it’s also known that light at night can cause hormonal changes and lead to cancer. Wild animals living close to cities and roads face the same problem — there is no darkness anymore. For example, in birds, their hormones — the same that are linked to cancer in humans — are affected by light at night. So, the next step would be to study if it also affects their probability of developing tumors.”

While these scientists are urgently calling for studies on cancer and its causes in wild animal populations, they realize that this is no easy subject to study.

“The next step is definitely to go into the field and measure cancer rate in wild populations,” said Giraudeau. “We are now trying to develop some biomarkers to be able to study this. I think it would be interesting to measure cancer prevalence in wild animals in human-impacted environments and also in more preserved areas for the same species.”

If humans are the cause of cancer in wild animals, then many species may be more threatened than people realize. Yet Tuul said, there is reason to hold out hope.

“To me, the saddest thing is that we already know what to do. We should not destroy the habitats of wild animals, pollute the environment, and feed wild animals human food,” shared Sepp. “The fact that everybody already knows what to do, but we are not doing it, makes it seem even more hopeless.

“But I see hope in education. Our kids are learning a lot more about conservation issues than our parents did. So, there is hope that the decision-makers of the future will be more mindful of the anthropogenic effects on the environment.”

Novel drug protects memory function in mice exposed to simulated cosmic radiation — ScienceDaily

Planning a trip to Mars? You’ll want to remember your anti-radiation pills.

NASA and private space companies like SpaceX plan to send humans to the red planet within the next 15 years — but among the major challenges facing future crewed space missions is how to protect astronauts from the dangerous cosmic radiation of deep space.

Now the lab of UCSF neuroscientist Susanna Rosi, PhD, has identified the first potential treatment for the brain damage caused by exposure to cosmic rays — a drug that prevents memory impairment in mice exposed to simulated space radiation. The study was published May 18, 2018 in Scientific Reports.

Humans venturing beyond the Earth’s protective magnetic fields will be exposed to levels of cosmic radiation estimated to be 1000 times higher than what we experience on Earth or even in the International Space Station’s low-earth orbit. Protecting astronauts from this harmful radiation will be key to making deep space exploration — and perhaps one day colonization — possible.

Rosi, who is Director of Neurocognitive Research in the UCSF Brain and Spinal Injury Center and a professor in the departments of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science and of Neurological Surgery, has conducted NASA-funded research for the past four years to understand how deep space radiation may affect astronauts’ brains.

Rosi’s team has previously found that exposing mice to simulated space radiation causes problems with memory, social interactions, and anxiety, and has linked these symptoms of radiation exposure to activation of cells called microglia — part of the brain’s immune system. Activated microglia drive brain inflammation similar to what is seen in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, and also seek out and consume synapses, the information-bearing connections between brain cells.

“We are starting to have evidence that exposure to deep space radiation might affect brain function over the long term, but as far as I know, no one had explored any possible countermeasures that might protect astronauts’ brains against this level of radiation exposure,” said Rosi, who is a member of the Weill Institute for Neuroscience, the Kavli Institute of Fundamental Neuroscience, and the UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center.

In the new study, the researchers collaborated with co-authors at Loma Linda University in Southern California to expose mice for a day to a dose of radiation comparable to what they might experience in deep space. The experiments were conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, the only facility in the country where such experiments are possible. A week later, after being shipped back to UCSF, some of the mice were treated for 15 days with PLX5622, a drug produced by Berkeley-based pharmaceutical company Plexxikon, Inc, and which the Rosi lab had previously shown to prevent cognitive deficits in a mouse model of cancer radiation therapy when administered prior to irradiation of the brain.

In the present study, the irradiated animals initially displayed no cognitive deficits, but after three months they began showing signs of memory impairment. Normally, when researchers place mice in a room with a familiar and an unfamiliar object, the animals spend more time exploring the new object. But mice that had been exposed to space radiation three months earlier explored the two objects equally — presumably because they didn’t remember having seen one of the objects just the day before.

Remarkably, animals that had been treated with PLX5622 soon after being exposed to radiation performed just like healthy mice on the memory task. The researchers examined the animals’ brains and showed that while the brains of untreated mice were full of activated microglia and had lost significant numbers of synapses, the brains of treated mice looked just like normal. The authors hypothesize that by forcing the brain to replace irritable, radiation-exposed microglia with new, healthy microglia, the drug had allowed the animals avoid the cognitive consequences of radiation.

“This is really neat evidence, first that rebooting the brain’s microglia can protect cognitive function following radiation exposure, and second that we don’t necessarily need to treat immediately following the radiation exposure for the drug to be effective,” Rosi said.

Similar compounds to PLX5622 produced by Plexxikon (inhibitors of a cellular receptor molecule called CSF1R) are already in clinical trials for multiple forms of human cancer, which suggests that the new findings could soon be translated to human use, the researchers say. Beyond spaceflight, these compounds could potentially be used to prevent cognitive impairments following cancer radiation therapy, or in age-related cognitive impairment — which has also been linked to microglia-driven brain inflammation.

“NASA is very interested in finding ways of ensuring both astronaut safety and mission success during deep space travel,” said study co-lead author Karen Krukowski, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher in Rosi’s lab. “But astronauts are a small population — it’s exciting that these findings could potentially help prevent many other forms of cognitive impairment.”

Nanoparticles could offer a new way to help eradicate the disease worldwide — ScienceDaily

A new nanoparticle vaccine developed by MIT researchers could assist efforts to eradicate polio worldwide. The vaccine, which delivers multiple doses in just one injection, could make it easier to immunize children in remote regions of Pakistan and other countries where the disease is still found.

While the number of reported cases of polio dropped by 99 percent worldwide between 1988 and 2013, according to the Centers for Disease Control, the disease has not been completely eradicated, in part because of the difficulty in reaching children in remote areas to give them the two to four polio vaccine injections required to build up immunity.

“Having a one-shot vaccine that can elicit full protection could be very valuable in being able to achieve eradication,” says Ana Jaklenec, a research scientist at MIT’s Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research and one of the senior authors of the paper.

Robert Langer, the David H. Koch Institute Professor at MIT, is also a senior author of the study, which appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the week of May 21. Stephany Tzeng, a former MIT postdoc who is now a research associate at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, is the paper’s lead author.

“We are very excited about the approaches and results in this paper, which I hope will someday lead to better vaccines for patients around the world,” Langer says.

Global eradication

There are no drugs against poliovirus, and in about 1 percent of cases, it enters the nervous system, where it can cause paralysis. The first polio vaccine, also called the Salk vaccine, was developed in the 1950s. This vaccine consists of an inactivated version of the virus, which is usually given as a series of two to four injections, beginning at 2 months of age. In 1961, an oral vaccine was developed, which offers some protection with only one dose but is more effective with two to three doses.

The oral vaccine, which consists of a virus that has reduced virulence but is still viable, has been phased out in most countries because in very rare cases, it can mutate to a virulent form and cause infection. It is still used in some developing countries, however, because it is easier to administer the drops than to reach children for multiple injections of the Salk vaccine.

For polio eradication efforts to succeed, the oral vaccine must be completely phased out, to eliminate the chance of the virus reactivating in an immunized person. Several years ago, Langer’s lab received funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to try to develop an injectable vaccine that could be given just once but carry multiple doses.

“The goal is to ensure that everyone globally is immunized,” Jaklenec says. “Children in some of these hard-to-reach developing world locations tend to not get the full series of shots necessary for protection.”

To create a single-injection vaccine, the MIT team encapsulated the inactivated polio vaccine in a biodegradable polymer known as PLGA. This polymer can be designed to degrade after a certain period of time, allowing the researchers to control when the vaccine is released.

“There’s always a little bit of vaccine that’s left on the surface or very close to the surface of the particle, and as soon as we put it in the body, whatever is at the surface can just diffuse away. That’s the initial burst,” Tzeng says. “Then the particles sit at the injection site and over time, as the polymer degrades, they release the vaccine in bursts at defined time points, based on the degradation rate of the polymer.”

The researchers had to overcome one major obstacle that has stymied previous efforts to use PLGA for polio vaccine delivery: The polymer breaks down into byproducts called glycolic acid and lactic acid, and these acids can harm the virus so that it no longer provokes the right kind of antibody response.

To prevent this from happening, the MIT team added positively charged polymers to their particles. These polymers act as “proton sponges,” sopping up extra protons and making the environment less acidic, allowing the virus to remain stable in the body.

Successful immunization

In the PNAS study, the researchers designed particles that would deliver an initial burst at the time of injection, followed by a second release about 25 days later. They injected the particles into rats, then sent blood samples from the immunized rats to the Centers for Disease Control for testing. Those studies revealed that the blood samples from rats immunized with the single-injection particle vaccine had an antibody response against poliovirus just as strong as, or stronger than, antibodies from rats that received two injections of Salk polio vaccine.

To deliver more than two doses, the researchers say they could design particles that release vaccine at injection and one month later, and mix them with particles that release at injection and two months later, resulting in three overall doses, each a month apart. The polymers that the researchers used in the vaccines are already FDA-approved for use in humans, so they hope to soon be able to test the vaccines in clinical trials.

The researchers are also working on applying this approach to create stable, single-injection vaccines for other viruses such as Ebola and HIV.

The research was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Having an egg a day could reduce risk of stroke by 26 percent — ScienceDaily

People who consume an egg a day could significantly reduce their risk of cardiovascular diseases compared with eating no eggs, suggests a study carried out in China, published in the journal Heart.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, including China, mostly due to ischaemic heart disease and stroke (including both haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke).

Unlike ischaemic heart disease, which is the leading cause of premature death in most Western countries, stroke is the most responsible cause in China, followed by heart disease.

Although ischaemic stroke accounted for the majority of strokes, the proportion of haemorrhagic stroke in China is still higher than that in high income countries.

Eggs are a prominent source of dietary cholesterol, but they also contain high-quality protein, many vitamins and bioactive components such as phospholipids and carotenoids.

Previous studies looking at associations between eating eggs and impact on health have been inconsistent, and most of them found insignificant associations between egg consumption and coronary heart disease or stroke.

Therefore, a team of researchers from China and the UK led by Professor Liming Li and Dr Canqing Yu from the School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, set out to examine the associations between egg consumption and cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease, major coronary events, haemorrhagic stroke and ischaemic stroke.

They used data from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study, an ongoing prospective study of around half a million (512,891) adults aged 30 to 79 from 10 different geographical areas in China.

The participants were recruited between 2004-2008 and were asked about the frequency of their egg consumption. They were followed up to determine their morbidity and mortality.

For the new study, the researchers focused on 416,213 participants who were free of prior cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes.

From that group at a median follow-up of 8.9 years, a total of 83,977 cases of CVD and 9,985 CVD deaths were documented, as well as 5,103 major coronary events.

At the start of the study period, 13.1% of participants reported daily consumption (usual amount 0.76 egg/day) and 9.1% reported never or very rare consumption (usual amount 0.29 egg/day) of eggs.

Analysis of the results showed that compared with people not consuming eggs, daily egg consumption was associated with a lower risk of CVD overall.

In particular, daily egg consumers (up to one egg/day) had a 26% lower risk of haemorrhagic stroke — the type of stroke with a higher prevalence rate in China than in high-income countries — a 28% lower risk of haemorrhagic stroke death and an 18% lower risk of CVD death.

In addition, there was a 12% reduction in risk of ischaemic heart disease observed for people consuming eggs daily (estimated amount 5.32 eggs/week), when compared with the ‘never/rarely’ consumption category (2.03 eggs/week).

This was an observational study, so no firm conclusions can be drawn about cause and effect, but the authors said their study had a large sample size and took into account established and potential risk factors for CVD.

The authors concluded: “The present study finds that there is an association between moderate level of egg consumption (up to 1 egg/day) and a lower cardiac event rate.

“Our findings contribute scientific evidence to the dietary guidelines with regard to egg consumption for the healthy Chinese adult.”

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Mice brain structure linked with sex-based differences in anxiety behavior — ScienceDaily

Using male individuals has long been a tradition in scientific mice studies. But new research enforces the importance of using a balanced population of male and female mice.

In a paper published May 22 in the journal Cell Reports, scientists studying the locus coeruleus brain structure in mice unexpectedly found substantial differences in the molecular structures of this part of the brain between male and female mice. They found that female mice had a three-fold higher abundance of the prostaglandin receptor EP3 (PTGER3), as well as elevated levels of Slc6a15 and Lin28b, both genes in regions associated with major depressive disorder (MDD).

“This is particularly interesting because many of the same diseases that are targeted by drugs that work on this structure, such as ADHD or depression, also really have differences in prevalence between men and women in the general population,” says senior author Joseph Dougherty of the Department of Genetics at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

Women are usually two to four times more likely to suffer from depression or anxiety, and ADHD is more commonly found in males. “We thought it really striking that there was this structure in the brain that is the target of these drugs that also has this very profound molecular-level difference between males and females,” he says.

The researchers initially set out to study gene expression in the mouse locus coeruleus, a small nucleus of neurons in the brain that is the primary source for the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. Norepinephrine is a major target of many drugs to treat disorders like ADHD and depression.

“We are the first to take a genome-wide view of all of the genes utilized in this small structure,” adds Dougherty. In this study, he and his team studied mouse noradrenergic neurons found in the locus coeruleus in vivo and identified over 3,000 transcripts it expressed.

Because Dougherty follows current practices mandated by the National Institutes of Health since 2016, his experiments included a balanced population of both male and female mice in the experiment. When they studied the gene expression of the mice, they unexpectedly found these differences in the transcriptome between the male and female mice in this part of the brain structure.

This finding prodded the researchers to test whether this molecular difference had any functional consequences. They next delivered sulprostone, a drug targeting PTGER3, to see if they could influence its activity. When both male and female mice received sulprostone directly to the locus coeruleus via cannula after a simulated stress event, only the females responded. “We could turn off a stress-induced anxiety like behavior, specifically in the female mice, but not in the males,” says Dougherty, who believes that this sex-based difference may help inform how to conduct experimentation around mood disorders and development of therapeutics.

Going forward, Dougherty plans on researching whether these molecular and functional differences in the locus coeruleus of mice are duplicated in the human brain.

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Researchers define for the first time the mechanisms responsible for the mammary gland development — ScienceDaily

Publication in Nature Cell Biology: researchers at the Université libre de Bruxelles, ULB define for the first time the mechanisms responsible for the mammary gland development.

The mammary gland is the tissue that produces the milk during lactation, allowing the survival of young mammalian offspring. The mammary gland is composed of two main lineages: the basal cells, which surround the inner luminal cells. The luminal cells can be subdivided into ductal cells, and alveolar cells that produce the milk. The basal cells allow the circulation of the milk from the alveoli to the nipple region through their contractile properties. During pubertal mammary gland expansion and adult life, distinct pools of unipotent stem cells replenish the basal and luminal lineages independently of each other’s. However, it remains unclear how mammary gland initially develops. Are embryonic mammary gland progenitors multipotent, meaning that their progenitors are capable of giving rise to both basal and luminal cells? If so, when does the switch from multipotency to unipotency occur? And what are the molecular mechanisms that regulate multipotency and basal and luminal lineage segregation?

In a new study published in Nature Cell Biology, research team led by Prof. Cédric Blanpain, MD/PhD, WELBIO investigator and Professor at the Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, identified the mechanisms that regulate mammary gland development. Using a combination of lineage tracing, molecular profiling, single cell sequencing and functional experiments, Aline Wuidart and colleagues demonstrated that mammary gland initially develops from multipotent progenitors during the early steps of embryonic mammary gland morphogenesis whereas postnatal mammary gland development is mediated by lineage-restricted stem cells.

To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating multipotency during embryonic development, the researchers developed a novel strategy to isolate embryonic mammary gland stem cells, and assessed for the first time their molecular features using single cell sequencing in collaboration with Thierry Voet group, KUL/Sanger Institute. Interestingly, only embryonic mammary gland progenitors and not adult cells, expressed a hybrid transcriptional signature comprising markers for both luminal and basal lineages, explaining their multipotent fate at this stage of embryonic development.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. By analyzing the early steps of breast cancer formation, Alexandra Van Keymeulen and Cédric Blanpain previously demonstrated that the expression of one of the most frequently mutated genes in patients with breast cancers reactivates a multipotent program in adult unipotent stem cells. In this new study, the researchers show that embryonic mammary gland progenitors express the same genes than during the reactivation of multipotency associated with breast cancer development. “It was really interesting to see that many genes found to be specifically expressed by embryonic mammary gland progenitors are expressed in aggressive human breast cancers with poor prognosis, further suggesting that the reactivation of a gene expression program characteristic of embryonic mammary gland during tumorigenesis is essential for cancer growth and invasion.” Comments Cédric Blanpain, the senior author of this study.

In conclusion, this new study identifies multipotent embryonic stem cells of the mammary gland, uncovers the molecular features associated with embryonic multipotency and identifies the molecular mechanisms regulating the switch from multipotency to unipotency during mammary gland development. The paradigm uncovered in this study has important implications for the understanding of the development of other glandular organs and tissues such as the prostate that present similar developmental switch. Finally, the mechanisms uncovered here have also implications for cancer development and progression.

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New tech may make prosthetic hands easier for patients to use — ScienceDaily

Researchers have developed new technology for decoding neuromuscular signals to control powered, prosthetic wrists and hands. The work relies on computer models that closely mimic the behavior of the natural structures in the forearm, wrist and hand. The technology could also be used to develop new computer interface devices for applications such as gaming and computer-aided design (CAD).

The technology has worked well in early testing but has not yet entered clinical trials — making it years away from commercial availability. The work was led by researchers in the joint biomedical engineering program at North Carolina State University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Current state-of-the-art prosthetics rely on machine learning to create a “pattern recognition” approach to prosthesis control. This approach requires users to “teach” the device to recognize specific patterns of muscle activity and translate them into commands — such as opening or closing a prosthetic hand.

“Pattern recognition control requires patients to go through a lengthy process of training their prosthesis,” says He (Helen) Huang, a professor in the joint biomedical engineering program at North Carolina State University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. “This process can be both tedious and time-consuming.

“We wanted to focus on what we already know about the human body,” says Huang, who is senior author of a paper on the work. “This is not only more intuitive for users, it is also more reliable and practical.

“That’s because every time you change your posture, your neuromuscular signals for generating the same hand/wrist motion change. So relying solely on machine learning means teaching the device to do the same thing multiple times; once for each different posture, once for when you are sweaty versus when you are not, and so on. Our approach bypasses most of that.”

Instead, the researchers developed a user-generic, musculoskeletal model. The researchers placed electromyography sensors on the forearms of six able-bodied volunteers, tracking exactly which neuromuscular signals were sent when they performed various actions with their wrists and hands. This data was then used to create the generic model, which translated those neuromuscular signals into commands that manipulate a powered prosthetic.

“When someone loses a hand, their brain is networked as if the hand is still there,” Huang says. “So, if someone wants to pick up a glass of water, the brain still sends those signals to the forearm. We use sensors to pick up those signals and then convey that data to a computer, where it is fed into a virtual musculoskeletal model. The model takes the place of the muscles, joints and bones, calculating the movements that would take place if the hand and wrist were still whole. It then conveys that data to the prosthetic wrist and hand, which perform the relevant movements in a coordinated way and in real time — more closely resembling fluid, natural motion.

“By incorporating our knowledge of the biological processes behind generating movement, we were able to produce a novel neural interface for prosthetics that is generic to multiple users, including an amputee in this study, and is reliable across different arm postures,” Huang says.

And the researchers think the potential applications are not limited to prosthetic devices.

“This could be used to develop computer-interface devices for able-bodied people as well,” Huang says. “Such as devices for gameplay or for manipulating objects in CAD programs.”

In preliminary testing, both able-bodied and amputee volunteers were able to use the model-controlled interface to perform all of the required hand and wrist motions — despite having very little training.

“We’re currently seeking volunteers who have transradial amputations to help us with further testing of the model to perform activities of daily living,” Huang says. “We want to get additional feedback from users before moving ahead with clinical trials.

“To be clear, we are still years away from having this become commercially available for clinical use,” Huang stresses. “And it is difficult to predict potential cost, since our work is focused on the software, and the bulk of cost for amputees would be in the hardware that actually runs the program. However, the model is compatible with available prosthetic devices.”

The researchers are also exploring the idea of incorporating machine learning into the generic musculoskeletal model.

“Our model makes prosthetic use more intuitive and reliable, but machine learning could allow users to gain more nuanced control by allowing the program to learn each person’s daily needs and preferences and better adapt to a specific user in the long term,” Huang says.

Why Herbalife Formula is the Best Diet Shake

Herbalife shake is a nutrition rich meal replacement formula that helps in healthy weight loss and energy boost. It can also serve as a quick meal for people who have tight schedules at work because it is nutritious, filling and very tasty. The satisfying aspect of the shake reduces the intake of snacks thus cutting down calories taken when one keeps on eating snacks due to hunger. 

Essential nutrients, vitamins that are present: 

This is an important step toward losing weight. Herbalife shake is fully balanced. It contains essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals; therefore, one needs not to worry about being supplied with proper nutrition in the right amounts needed by the body when using the shake. 

Herbalife shake is made from keenly selected high-quality ingredients most of which are organic. To start with; Herbalife shake is packed with healthy proteins from soy as well as milk. Research shows that a protein-rich diet is able to cause weight loss. This is because high healthy protein decreases the fat in the body. 

The effectiveness of the Herbalife shake 

It has fiber which helps in digestion. Other ingredients are fruits such as papaya, ginger root powder, canola, corn, bran, vegetables, and other micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins all of which supply the body with the required nutrients. 

In addition, the vegetables in the shakes provide fiber that aids in digestion while the fruits provide natural low sugars to prevent hypertension while providing the body with the required energy at the same time. Generally, herbal shake ingredients used to make the formula are low in fat to ensure the prevention of cholesterol. For this reason, the shake is healthy even in prolonged use. 

Herbalife reviews from Customer 

Herbalife reviews are mainly positive as people give testimonies of how they have succeeded to lose weight with the help of the shake. Also, most of them have confessed to having experienced higher energy levels while using the formula. Mothers have acknowledged how Herbalife shake has helped them in shedding weight and promised to recommend it to other people looking forward to losing weight. Also, most of those who have used the shake applaud its high quality and agree that it has a great taste as well, therefore, they enjoy taking it. 

Herbalife is produced in a wide range of flavors to cater to the personal tastes and preferences of users. A few of the best Herbalife flavors are seasonal, but the majority can be supplied all year round. These Herbalife shake flavors are: Cookies n Cream, Orange Cream, Koshera also called Vanilla, French Vanilla, Dulce de Leche, Mint Chocolate, Wild Berry, Pina Colada, Café Latte, Pumpkin Spice, Dutch Chocolate, and Vanilla non-GM ingredients. 

Although all Herbalife shake flavors are popularly used, the best flavor is Cookies n Cream. This is according to the Herbalife shake reviews of those who have either used Herbalife meal replacement shake or still are using it. The reason most of them give for choosing Cookies n Cream as the best flavor is that it is easy for one to add other foods such as vegetables and fruits into its formula. 

Bottom line 

In conclusion, Herbalife is the best meal replacement for those who want to lose weight in a healthy way. It is a high-quality shake carefully made from Herbalife shake ingredients proven to provide nutrients and to stimulate weight loss as well. Therefore, it is the most recommended meal replacement formula for those aspiring to lose weight. 

Also, it is balanced and fortified with numerous vitamins which are twenty-one in number as well as micronutrients to ensure nourishment and to boost one’s energy during the weight loss process. Also, Herbalife shakes are very delicious, and their preparation is simple and quick therefore coming in handy when there is little time. 

These are some of the reasons why they are popularly bought. Compared to other weight loss shakes, Herbalife meal replacement shake has proven excellent results since it certainly helps in losing weight when used even in few, for instance, a week. For remarkable healthy weight loss though, continuous use of Herbalife is required; this is because Herbalife leads to gradual loss of weight; therefore, one remains healthy and strong even in the process. Herbalife Shake is the best diet shake for weight loss, and it gives one value for money. 

Fundamentals of Tru Weight Loss

You achieve physical fitness by living a healthy lifestyle. If you are in bad physical shape, you tend to suffer from anxiety, depression among other health-related problems. The problems can drastically reduce if you make efforts and stay safe. In order to improve the level of physical fitness, many people resort to diet products. Not all diet companies offer the best products. There is good news to those who try Tru weight loss products. They are made to assure you great success when it comes to weight loss. 

What Are TruVision Products? 

It is a revolutionary company which is known to make quality weight loss products. The weight loss products sold by the company are highly effective. The products combine diet and exercises which are very effective in helping you lose weight. It does not offer to get fit quick schemes which do not work. The products offered by the company combine fat burning medicines, healthy diet plans, remarkable experiences and beneficial dietary supplements.
They have been tested to ensure they work for many people who try them. 

The company is concerned in promoting better wellbeing and health. It produces several products which are used all over the world. Some of the products can work alone or in a combination of other products from the company. Some of the products include TruFix and TruContol which are packed with vital ingredients based on several years of scientific research. 

The 411 on TruFix 

The products in TruVision Company are made out do different ingredients. Some of the bestselling products in the company is TruFix which promotes healthy blood cholesterol levels and sugar. It also supports live functions. The globally known products are naturally sourced from plant extracts which initiate detox of your body. They optimize blood chemistry and encourage fast weight loss process through initiating the body’s own fat burning processes. 

The products feature several nutrients such as minerals, vitamins as well as amino acids.
The developers of TruVision have included the most vital components of weight management processes which are safe. Some of the ingredients include the following: 

  • Chromium 
  • Magnesium 
  • Chlorogenic acid 
  • Copper
  • Zinc
  • Alpha Lipoic acid
  • Selenium
  • Raspberry Ketones
  • Cinnulin
  • Vanadium 

The work of Trufix is to help the body release toxins and fats from the body. It leads to the reduction of cellulite as well as minimizing fat storage in the body. Use of the products helps in tackling stubborn fats from the body. TruFix is designed to work in combination with TruControl. 

The 411 on TruControl 

The weight management products are proved to be effective in helping you lose weight. TruControl works with Tru Fix to provide a well-rounded approach. The product picks up where TruFix stops to help you achieve the best results in your weight loss journey. It provides excellent appetite control as well as sustaining energy levels. It also promotes better mental lucidity. TruControl has several ingredients which make it an effective weight loss program. It utilizes quality ingredients such as the following: 

Hydroelectric Acid 

Octodrine 

Cocoa Powder
Caffeine 

Hordenine HCL 

Pyridoxine 

Yohimbine HCL 

Green Tea Extract 

Microcrystalline Cellulose 

Theacrine 

Dendrobium Extract 

Silicon Dioxide 

KinetiQ 

Black Pepper Extract 

Evodiamine 

Magnesium Stearate 

Ferrous Fumarate 

For effective results, Tru Weight loss products are designed to work as dietary supplements in form of pills which you should take before breakfast. They should be taken early in the morning and in early afternoon. They work to control your appetite hence leave you satisfied. They also boost your body metabolism as well as detoxifying. They optimize blood sugar levels to help you attain as well as maintain. The products are recommended by nutritionists because they pose no adverse negative side effects to human beings. 

Other TruVision Weight Loss Products 

The company is globally recognized to offer a wide array of naturally derived health ingredients. The healthy products can be used alone or with other supplements to help you enjoy good health. The high safety and efficiency of the products from the company makes them highly respected. 

The company also manufactures other three products which are effective just like TruControl and TruFix. They include the following products: 

1. TruElevate – The product helps you to feel energized all through the day especially when you are using fat burning products. Trufix and TruControl offer a boost to metabolism, but TruElevate helps to increase your energy levels. 

2. Renu- It is applied as a full body detox agent. It is effective in decreasing the amount of cellulite as well as helping you to shed fats. 

3. rePlace- It is a vegan meal replacement product which comes with several healthy ingredients. It can be taken with other TruWeight loss products to increase the absorption of different essential minerals, vitamins and amino acids in the body. 

Best Herbalife Shake Cafe Latte Formula One Recipes

Herbalife is a worldwide nutrition plus weight management company which manufactures weight loss supplements, protein shakes, sports plus energy products. The signature product-composing 30% of its sales is called “Formula 1”, a meal replacement shake powder manufactured from soy.

Herbalife losing weight plan is comprised of teas, losing weight supplements and protein shakes. Herbalife mixes some diets with its own Herbalife meal replacement protein shakes so as to help “induce weight loss”.

The company has created someplace where you can access all their Herbalife Shake Recipes, organized by Formula 1 Flavor. All the recipes can be accessed at this website: http://www.herbaldrive.com/herbalife-shake-recipes/

Example: Best Herbalife Shake Recipes:

Caffe Latte Formula 1

Lots of people think it is not possible having some quick and easy meal which is also healthy. Therefore, they end up sacrificing nutrition for ease and in the process visit the closest fast-food chain. But you do not have to that. The following are 10 ideas for some delicious and healthy meal that is based on Caffe Latte, flavored Formula 1 Shake Mix.

However, before getting to the recipes, there are some few things that ought to be mentioned. First is that you are going to require a smoothie machine or a blender to help in mixing together everything. You throw 10 ounces of water and ice into the blender together with other ingredients, then you blend till it becomes smooth. It may take some few times to get the correct ice/water ratio, depending on the make of your blender, the thickness of the ice among other factors.

Then there are common ingredients you are going to require much for each shake. For instance, you are going to use Formula One (Healthy Meal Nutritional) Shake Mix plus the Herbalife Protein Drink Shake Mix. when you happen to have only Formula 1 Mix, then you may just use two scoops of that. Then another common ingredient is the sugar-free pudding. When you are unable to find this in your local store, you are advised to look for it at abundantlifefoods.com.

Cafe Latte Formula, Ice, Water, Protein Drink Mix start with:

24 grams protein 

24 vitamins and minerals

250 calories

Any extra or substituted ingredients are going to alter the shake’s nutritional content.

10 Herbalife Shake Recipes utilizing Cafe Latte Formula One, Healthy Nutritional Meal Shake Mix

Chai Latte Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix

2 Scoops Vanilla Protein Drink Mix

1 Tablespoon of sugar-free, Gingerbread Syrup

1 Tablespoon of sugar-free, Vanilla Syrup

¼ Tablespoon of Cinnamon 

  1. Hazelnut Latte Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix 

2 Scoops Vanilla Protein Drink Mix 

1 Tablespoon sugar-free, Hazelnut Syrup

1 Tablespoon sugar-free Vanilla Pudding MIx  

  1. Peppermint Mocha Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix 

2 Scoops Vanilla Protein Drink Mix 

1 Tablespoon sugar-free, Chocolate Pudding Mix 

1 Tablespoon sugar-free, Peppermint Syrup

1 Tablespoon Andy’s Mints

  1. Mocha Cappuccino Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix 

2 Scoops Chocolate Protein Drink Mix 

1 Tablespoon sugar-free, Chocolate Pudding Mix 

1 A teaspoon of Instant Coffee

  1. Coffee Heath Bar Crunch Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix

2 Scoops Chocolate Protein Drink Mix

1 Tablespoon sugar-free, Butterscotch Pudding Mix

1 Teaspoon Peanut Butter

� Tablespoon Heath/Toffee Bar Bits

  1. Pumpkin Spice Latte Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix 

2 Scoops Vanilla Protein Drink Mix 

1 Tablespoon sugar-free, Pumpkin Syrup 

1 Dash Cinnamon

  1. Caramel Cafe Latte Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix 

2 Scoops Vanilla Protein Drink Mix 

1 Tablespoon sugar-free Caramel Syrup 

1 Teaspoon Instant Coffee

  1. Irish Cream Latte Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix 

2 Scoops Vanilla Protein Drink Mix 

1 Tablespoon sugar-free, Irish Syrup 

1 Teaspoon Instant Coffee

  1. Banana Latte Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix

2 Scoops Vanilla Protein Drink Mix

� of Banana 

1 Teaspoon Instant Coffee

  1. French Vanilla Cappuccino Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix 

2 Scoops Vanilla Protein Drink Mix 

1 Tablespoon sugar-free, Vanilla Pudding Mix 

1 Teaspoon Instant Coffee 

Herbalife Pros

Since the teas and protein shakes may be prepared anytime, anywhere and they need no special ingredients, their plan is quite practical.

Their diet plan is quite prescriptive, and this makes it convenient for people who have the propensity of liking exactly when and what they are told to eat.

Their diet program also is likely to result in short-term weight loss

Herbalife says you should try the above recipes and let them know your opinion. And that should you come up with your own recipes and you need to share it would be great. You just send it to them and they may feature it on their site. But all in all, these shakes are fast, simple and healthy. Therefore, you no longer have any reason to eat unhealthy food.