Researchers define for the first time the mechanisms responsible for the mammary gland development — ScienceDaily

Publication in Nature Cell Biology: researchers at the Université libre de Bruxelles, ULB define for the first time the mechanisms responsible for the mammary gland development.

The mammary gland is the tissue that produces the milk during lactation, allowing the survival of young mammalian offspring. The mammary gland is composed of two main lineages: the basal cells, which surround the inner luminal cells. The luminal cells can be subdivided into ductal cells, and alveolar cells that produce the milk. The basal cells allow the circulation of the milk from the alveoli to the nipple region through their contractile properties. During pubertal mammary gland expansion and adult life, distinct pools of unipotent stem cells replenish the basal and luminal lineages independently of each other’s. However, it remains unclear how mammary gland initially develops. Are embryonic mammary gland progenitors multipotent, meaning that their progenitors are capable of giving rise to both basal and luminal cells? If so, when does the switch from multipotency to unipotency occur? And what are the molecular mechanisms that regulate multipotency and basal and luminal lineage segregation?

In a new study published in Nature Cell Biology, research team led by Prof. Cédric Blanpain, MD/PhD, WELBIO investigator and Professor at the Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, identified the mechanisms that regulate mammary gland development. Using a combination of lineage tracing, molecular profiling, single cell sequencing and functional experiments, Aline Wuidart and colleagues demonstrated that mammary gland initially develops from multipotent progenitors during the early steps of embryonic mammary gland morphogenesis whereas postnatal mammary gland development is mediated by lineage-restricted stem cells.

To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating multipotency during embryonic development, the researchers developed a novel strategy to isolate embryonic mammary gland stem cells, and assessed for the first time their molecular features using single cell sequencing in collaboration with Thierry Voet group, KUL/Sanger Institute. Interestingly, only embryonic mammary gland progenitors and not adult cells, expressed a hybrid transcriptional signature comprising markers for both luminal and basal lineages, explaining their multipotent fate at this stage of embryonic development.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. By analyzing the early steps of breast cancer formation, Alexandra Van Keymeulen and Cédric Blanpain previously demonstrated that the expression of one of the most frequently mutated genes in patients with breast cancers reactivates a multipotent program in adult unipotent stem cells. In this new study, the researchers show that embryonic mammary gland progenitors express the same genes than during the reactivation of multipotency associated with breast cancer development. “It was really interesting to see that many genes found to be specifically expressed by embryonic mammary gland progenitors are expressed in aggressive human breast cancers with poor prognosis, further suggesting that the reactivation of a gene expression program characteristic of embryonic mammary gland during tumorigenesis is essential for cancer growth and invasion.” Comments Cédric Blanpain, the senior author of this study.

In conclusion, this new study identifies multipotent embryonic stem cells of the mammary gland, uncovers the molecular features associated with embryonic multipotency and identifies the molecular mechanisms regulating the switch from multipotency to unipotency during mammary gland development. The paradigm uncovered in this study has important implications for the understanding of the development of other glandular organs and tissues such as the prostate that present similar developmental switch. Finally, the mechanisms uncovered here have also implications for cancer development and progression.

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Materials provided by Université libre de Bruxelles. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

New tech may make prosthetic hands easier for patients to use — ScienceDaily

Researchers have developed new technology for decoding neuromuscular signals to control powered, prosthetic wrists and hands. The work relies on computer models that closely mimic the behavior of the natural structures in the forearm, wrist and hand. The technology could also be used to develop new computer interface devices for applications such as gaming and computer-aided design (CAD).

The technology has worked well in early testing but has not yet entered clinical trials — making it years away from commercial availability. The work was led by researchers in the joint biomedical engineering program at North Carolina State University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Current state-of-the-art prosthetics rely on machine learning to create a “pattern recognition” approach to prosthesis control. This approach requires users to “teach” the device to recognize specific patterns of muscle activity and translate them into commands — such as opening or closing a prosthetic hand.

“Pattern recognition control requires patients to go through a lengthy process of training their prosthesis,” says He (Helen) Huang, a professor in the joint biomedical engineering program at North Carolina State University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. “This process can be both tedious and time-consuming.

“We wanted to focus on what we already know about the human body,” says Huang, who is senior author of a paper on the work. “This is not only more intuitive for users, it is also more reliable and practical.

“That’s because every time you change your posture, your neuromuscular signals for generating the same hand/wrist motion change. So relying solely on machine learning means teaching the device to do the same thing multiple times; once for each different posture, once for when you are sweaty versus when you are not, and so on. Our approach bypasses most of that.”

Instead, the researchers developed a user-generic, musculoskeletal model. The researchers placed electromyography sensors on the forearms of six able-bodied volunteers, tracking exactly which neuromuscular signals were sent when they performed various actions with their wrists and hands. This data was then used to create the generic model, which translated those neuromuscular signals into commands that manipulate a powered prosthetic.

“When someone loses a hand, their brain is networked as if the hand is still there,” Huang says. “So, if someone wants to pick up a glass of water, the brain still sends those signals to the forearm. We use sensors to pick up those signals and then convey that data to a computer, where it is fed into a virtual musculoskeletal model. The model takes the place of the muscles, joints and bones, calculating the movements that would take place if the hand and wrist were still whole. It then conveys that data to the prosthetic wrist and hand, which perform the relevant movements in a coordinated way and in real time — more closely resembling fluid, natural motion.

“By incorporating our knowledge of the biological processes behind generating movement, we were able to produce a novel neural interface for prosthetics that is generic to multiple users, including an amputee in this study, and is reliable across different arm postures,” Huang says.

And the researchers think the potential applications are not limited to prosthetic devices.

“This could be used to develop computer-interface devices for able-bodied people as well,” Huang says. “Such as devices for gameplay or for manipulating objects in CAD programs.”

In preliminary testing, both able-bodied and amputee volunteers were able to use the model-controlled interface to perform all of the required hand and wrist motions — despite having very little training.

“We’re currently seeking volunteers who have transradial amputations to help us with further testing of the model to perform activities of daily living,” Huang says. “We want to get additional feedback from users before moving ahead with clinical trials.

“To be clear, we are still years away from having this become commercially available for clinical use,” Huang stresses. “And it is difficult to predict potential cost, since our work is focused on the software, and the bulk of cost for amputees would be in the hardware that actually runs the program. However, the model is compatible with available prosthetic devices.”

The researchers are also exploring the idea of incorporating machine learning into the generic musculoskeletal model.

“Our model makes prosthetic use more intuitive and reliable, but machine learning could allow users to gain more nuanced control by allowing the program to learn each person’s daily needs and preferences and better adapt to a specific user in the long term,” Huang says.

Fundamentals of Tru Weight Loss

You achieve physical fitness by living a healthy lifestyle. If you are in bad physical shape, you tend to suffer from anxiety, depression among other health-related problems. The problems can drastically reduce if you make efforts and stay safe. In order to improve the level of physical fitness, many people resort to diet products. Not all diet companies offer the best products. There is good news to those who try Tru weight loss products. They are made to assure you great success when it comes to weight loss. 

What Are TruVision Products? 

It is a revolutionary company which is known to make quality weight loss products. The weight loss products sold by the company are highly effective. The products combine diet and exercises which are very effective in helping you lose weight. It does not offer to get fit quick schemes which do not work. The products offered by the company combine fat burning medicines, healthy diet plans, remarkable experiences and beneficial dietary supplements.
They have been tested to ensure they work for many people who try them. 

The company is concerned in promoting better wellbeing and health. It produces several products which are used all over the world. Some of the products can work alone or in a combination of other products from the company. Some of the products include TruFix and TruContol which are packed with vital ingredients based on several years of scientific research. 

The 411 on TruFix 

The products in TruVision Company are made out do different ingredients. Some of the bestselling products in the company is TruFix which promotes healthy blood cholesterol levels and sugar. It also supports live functions. The globally known products are naturally sourced from plant extracts which initiate detox of your body. They optimize blood chemistry and encourage fast weight loss process through initiating the body’s own fat burning processes. 

The products feature several nutrients such as minerals, vitamins as well as amino acids.
The developers of TruVision have included the most vital components of weight management processes which are safe. Some of the ingredients include the following: 

  • Chromium 
  • Magnesium 
  • Chlorogenic acid 
  • Copper
  • Zinc
  • Alpha Lipoic acid
  • Selenium
  • Raspberry Ketones
  • Cinnulin
  • Vanadium 

The work of Trufix is to help the body release toxins and fats from the body. It leads to the reduction of cellulite as well as minimizing fat storage in the body. Use of the products helps in tackling stubborn fats from the body. TruFix is designed to work in combination with TruControl. 

The 411 on TruControl 

The weight management products are proved to be effective in helping you lose weight. TruControl works with Tru Fix to provide a well-rounded approach. The product picks up where TruFix stops to help you achieve the best results in your weight loss journey. It provides excellent appetite control as well as sustaining energy levels. It also promotes better mental lucidity. TruControl has several ingredients which make it an effective weight loss program. It utilizes quality ingredients such as the following: 

Hydroelectric Acid 


Cocoa Powder

Hordenine HCL 


Yohimbine HCL 

Green Tea Extract 

Microcrystalline Cellulose 


Dendrobium Extract 

Silicon Dioxide 


Black Pepper Extract 


Magnesium Stearate 

Ferrous Fumarate 

For effective results, Tru Weight loss products are designed to work as dietary supplements in form of pills which you should take before breakfast. They should be taken early in the morning and in early afternoon. They work to control your appetite hence leave you satisfied. They also boost your body metabolism as well as detoxifying. They optimize blood sugar levels to help you attain as well as maintain. The products are recommended by nutritionists because they pose no adverse negative side effects to human beings. 

Other TruVision Weight Loss Products 

The company is globally recognized to offer a wide array of naturally derived health ingredients. The healthy products can be used alone or with other supplements to help you enjoy good health. The high safety and efficiency of the products from the company makes them highly respected. 

The company also manufactures other three products which are effective just like TruControl and TruFix. They include the following products: 

1. TruElevate – The product helps you to feel energized all through the day especially when you are using fat burning products. Trufix and TruControl offer a boost to metabolism, but TruElevate helps to increase your energy levels. 

2. Renu- It is applied as a full body detox agent. It is effective in decreasing the amount of cellulite as well as helping you to shed fats. 

3. rePlace- It is a vegan meal replacement product which comes with several healthy ingredients. It can be taken with other TruWeight loss products to increase the absorption of different essential minerals, vitamins and amino acids in the body. 

Best Herbalife Shake Cafe Latte Formula One Recipes

Herbalife is a worldwide nutrition plus weight management company which manufactures weight loss supplements, protein shakes, sports plus energy products. The signature product-composing 30% of its sales is called “Formula 1”, a meal replacement shake powder manufactured from soy.

Herbalife losing weight plan is comprised of teas, losing weight supplements and protein shakes. Herbalife mixes some diets with its own Herbalife meal replacement protein shakes so as to help “induce weight loss”.

The company has created someplace where you can access all their Herbalife Shake Recipes, organized by Formula 1 Flavor. All the recipes can be accessed at this website:

Example: Best Herbalife Shake Recipes:

Caffe Latte Formula 1

Lots of people think it is not possible having some quick and easy meal which is also healthy. Therefore, they end up sacrificing nutrition for ease and in the process visit the closest fast-food chain. But you do not have to that. The following are 10 ideas for some delicious and healthy meal that is based on Caffe Latte, flavored Formula 1 Shake Mix.

However, before getting to the recipes, there are some few things that ought to be mentioned. First is that you are going to require a smoothie machine or a blender to help in mixing together everything. You throw 10 ounces of water and ice into the blender together with other ingredients, then you blend till it becomes smooth. It may take some few times to get the correct ice/water ratio, depending on the make of your blender, the thickness of the ice among other factors.

Then there are common ingredients you are going to require much for each shake. For instance, you are going to use Formula One (Healthy Meal Nutritional) Shake Mix plus the Herbalife Protein Drink Shake Mix. when you happen to have only Formula 1 Mix, then you may just use two scoops of that. Then another common ingredient is the sugar-free pudding. When you are unable to find this in your local store, you are advised to look for it at

Cafe Latte Formula, Ice, Water, Protein Drink Mix start with:

24 grams protein 

24 vitamins and minerals

250 calories

Any extra or substituted ingredients are going to alter the shake’s nutritional content.

10 Herbalife Shake Recipes utilizing Cafe Latte Formula One, Healthy Nutritional Meal Shake Mix

Chai Latte Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix

2 Scoops Vanilla Protein Drink Mix

1 Tablespoon of sugar-free, Gingerbread Syrup

1 Tablespoon of sugar-free, Vanilla Syrup

¼ Tablespoon of Cinnamon 

  1. Hazelnut Latte Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix 

2 Scoops Vanilla Protein Drink Mix 

1 Tablespoon sugar-free, Hazelnut Syrup

1 Tablespoon sugar-free Vanilla Pudding MIx  

  1. Peppermint Mocha Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix 

2 Scoops Vanilla Protein Drink Mix 

1 Tablespoon sugar-free, Chocolate Pudding Mix 

1 Tablespoon sugar-free, Peppermint Syrup

1 Tablespoon Andy’s Mints

  1. Mocha Cappuccino Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix 

2 Scoops Chocolate Protein Drink Mix 

1 Tablespoon sugar-free, Chocolate Pudding Mix 

1 A teaspoon of Instant Coffee

  1. Coffee Heath Bar Crunch Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix

2 Scoops Chocolate Protein Drink Mix

1 Tablespoon sugar-free, Butterscotch Pudding Mix

1 Teaspoon Peanut Butter

� Tablespoon Heath/Toffee Bar Bits

  1. Pumpkin Spice Latte Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix 

2 Scoops Vanilla Protein Drink Mix 

1 Tablespoon sugar-free, Pumpkin Syrup 

1 Dash Cinnamon

  1. Caramel Cafe Latte Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix 

2 Scoops Vanilla Protein Drink Mix 

1 Tablespoon sugar-free Caramel Syrup 

1 Teaspoon Instant Coffee

  1. Irish Cream Latte Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix 

2 Scoops Vanilla Protein Drink Mix 

1 Tablespoon sugar-free, Irish Syrup 

1 Teaspoon Instant Coffee

  1. Banana Latte Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix

2 Scoops Vanilla Protein Drink Mix

� of Banana 

1 Teaspoon Instant Coffee

  1. French Vanilla Cappuccino Shake:

2 Scoops Cafe Latte Formula One Mix 

2 Scoops Vanilla Protein Drink Mix 

1 Tablespoon sugar-free, Vanilla Pudding Mix 

1 Teaspoon Instant Coffee 

Herbalife Pros

Since the teas and protein shakes may be prepared anytime, anywhere and they need no special ingredients, their plan is quite practical.

Their diet plan is quite prescriptive, and this makes it convenient for people who have the propensity of liking exactly when and what they are told to eat.

Their diet program also is likely to result in short-term weight loss

Herbalife says you should try the above recipes and let them know your opinion. And that should you come up with your own recipes and you need to share it would be great. You just send it to them and they may feature it on their site. But all in all, these shakes are fast, simple and healthy. Therefore, you no longer have any reason to eat unhealthy food.

What you need to know about TruVision Health Supplements

You definitely know that the search for the best health supplement never ends. This search can be compared to looking for Holy Grail. In the course of this search, one may end up with a lot of disappointments. There is also the risk of opting for a harmful health supplement.

Some consumers had complained about TruVision. However, instead of relying entirely on the reviews of these products, we did a thorough investigation to find out if these health supplements have any scientific backing.

These are the facts that you need to know about TruVision health supplements:

Do you really know TruVision?

TruVision is a company that produces different health products. These products include TruHealth, TruEssentials among others. Our investigations were mainly motivated and centered around the various side effects that people had been talking about. All these have been discussed below.

The supplements from TruVision were availed in the market from 2014. They were meant to help people lose weight. The company marketed the product with the promise that you could begin using them immediately. Moreover, the supplements could be bought by the consumers from several places
such as the wholesalers, those retailing the products as well as from the online website of the company.


The main ingredients include:

Vitamins- Important nutrients that are meant to increase the intake of the body if the nutrients are not naturally available in the body.

Minerals- Organic compounds/substances that occur naturally. They help in making the body healthier.

Extract of Green Tea- Has Polyphenols, which has strong antioxidant qualities. In addition, it also contains amino acids which improve how the brain functions and brings anti-anxiety effects.

Dendrobium- Has important characteristics that enable it to assist in digestion.

Bitter Orange- Contains synephrine, that can help in weight loss.

Caffeine- This substance stimulates the Central nervous system that is important in weight loss as well as motor coordination.

Are there any side-effects of these supplements?

This was the main concern that we had. Just as we have said before, the supplements used for weight-loss should leave you feeling better, lighter and brighter. However, there is a need for concern if the product makes you interact with people differently or makes you see yourself in a different way. For instance, there was one reviewer who reported feeling an increased level of agitation and a lower mood. However, when this is compared to the available positive reviews, it makes up the opinion of very few people. It is also important to know that the feeling of agitation can also be felt if one is not used to taking caffeine. Given that the product is a stimulant, you can be left with more energy that you may not know where to direct.

There were also positive side effects that were reported by the users. There was one user who said that the supplement ended the stomach troubles they previously had and did not feel any negative side-effects. There was another user who reported an increase in mental capacity to focus as well as an increase in the level of energy in the body.

TruVision and scam claims.

With the concern that TruVision included 4-amino-2-methylpentane citrate (DMBA) and synephrine in the products, FDA (Food and Drug Administration) started investigating the company in 2015 (April). The concern was that the compounds were not ‘dietary ingredients’ as claimed by the company. Consequently, the company was prevented from distributing its products such as TruEnergy and TruWeight until this issue was sorted.

What people have to say about the result of these products.

From a wholesome point of view, the TruVision health products have several positive side-effects. The users said they felt they had more energy, and felt happier. Some simply said they lost weight. More people reported that they did not know they would have a lot of energy to enable them to work out. This is a huge part of this process.


Realistically speaking, we do not have the expectation that there is a health supplement that can perform miracles. TruVision health supplements contain ingredients that are all natural. Your body, therefore, needs these supplements to increase the rate of weight-loss, enhance positive self-image, and reduce appetite. However, it is important to note that your mindset plays an important role in any adjustments in weight and health. As soon as you decide to make changes in your lifestyle, these products will be very useful to you.

Honest Vital Reds Review: Does The Supplement Work?

Life today has become so fast that it’s quite difficult keeping balance of everything around, particularly concerning managing digestive, and metabolism, and weight management concerns. It’s not an easy thing to do. Mostly we tend to go for things which could provide optimal help in minimal time. But people often ignore their health to save their time, leading them to gain weight and other health issues.
What is Vital Reds?

Vital Reds is described as a wellness supplement that’s created by Gundry MD. This supplement comes in powder form. The product is marketed to help in giving you an energy boost, have enhanced digestion, and make your skin become healthier. This formula is said to be sugar free, lectin free, soy-free, and artificial sweetener free.
What makes Vital Reds Achieve Much?

The secret is in its ingredients. Together with polyphenol blend, the following is a breakdown of the supplement ingredients:

Metabolic mixture: Ginger root, cinnamon bark, white tea and green tea leaf extracts, black pepper fruit, bitter lemon leaf extracts plus black pepper fruit.

Digestive blend: Lactobacillus acidophilus, bacillus coagulans, L.reuteri2 and bifidobacterium lactis.

The question is now how to put these together…

It’s simple. Just pour into water or any other kind of beverage some small scoop of Vital Reds you like once in a day.

Perhaps you are concerned about adding some new supplement to your expanding regimen. Note that you are covered by a money-back guarantee of 90 days from Gundry MD. Therefore when you are dissatisfied with the results within this period, you sure to get your full refund.

The good thing is that Vital Reds supplements are only single part of the full range of Gundry MD supplement supply line.

Prebiothrive combines a total of five advanced prebiotic ingredients that help creating in your stomach prebiotic-friendly environment.

Primal Plants is an amazing 25-ingredient formula combining green superfoods that are rich in polyphenols together with metabolic and digestive support, similar to Vital Reds.

Glucose Defence that combines ingredients such as turmeric extract and cinnamon bark to support your body’s natural ability to manage your blood sugar levels.

Lectic Shield helps in reducing effects of lectins and plant-based proteins which may affect your digestion plus overall health.

Therefore, these and several more products may combine with Vital Reds so as to offer you full-on approach to your well being.
But Why Polyphenols?

A number of the ingredients are quite popular and you must have heard about them before. But others like polyphenols may be relatively unheard of. These are a combination of micronutrients which we receive via some plant-based foods. The most common example is the berry family. Polyphenols are linked to several benefits that include:

  •  Weight management
  • Digestive support
  • Heart support
  • Brain support

But when you select supplements to make you receive polyphenols, it is significant you select some safe product. This is the main reason why Vital Reds is important because it has this safety quality.

The Age Limit

People of any age may use the product. Vital Reds is going to assist them achieve their targets through boosting stamina, making the skin glow and healthier and improving metabolism. The use of the supplement is quite simple and it doesn’t need any prolonged process. All its ingredients are natural therefore; it is quite easy to trust the product.
Who’s Gundry MD, the brains behind Vital Reds?

Steven Gundry is a famous name concerning health management. He is a cardiovascular surgeon who has spent several years of his life helping people concerning their health problems. He is the founder of the Center for Restorative Medicine. He also has several other achievements to his credit in the medicine world.

Dr. Steven Gundry has a solid belief that a combination of natural ingredients together with positive diet changes may help those who want to lose their weight quickly without causing any adverse side effect to the body.


All in all, with the assistance of amazing products such as Vital Reds, a product that may be found on Gundry MD website, everyone now can enjoy the benefits of what the natural products can do to their weight loss efforts and skin management plus their overall health. With its natural ingredients that has no adverse side effects on the body, this product is highly recommended to people of all ages.