The Legal Issues Concerning of CBD Vape Oil

CBD vape oil has been linked to health benefits such as treating mental disorders, reducing pain, and helping with inflammation. However, just because it has positive effects does not mean you can use it wherever you like. Some places do not allow it while others have already legalized CBD oil. 

CBD vape oil has come a long way in terms of legalization due to its relation to cannabis. Yes, some countries have allowed citizens to use it but many others still have reservations about it. They include the vape oil on the list of illegal products.  

Well, why are states having controversial stands about CBD vape oil legality? CBD stands for cannabidiol. Its legality depends on three factors its source and country.  


CBD oil can be obtained from either the marijuana plant or the industrial hemp version. Many nations consider marijuana illegal. It is because one of its species contains high levels of THC, a compound that causes users to feel ‘high’. Therefore, instead of looking into the other strains with very low THC, such states decide to criminalize marijuana altogether.  

If you live in a country where marijuana is illegal, then even CBD oil vape extracted from it is illegal. Some states in the US permit use of marijuana and its extracts for medical purposes. Therefore, make sure you have a doctor’s prescription before purchase.  

As for industrial hemp, it is the alternative source of CBD vape oil. This is because it does not contain THC. You do not have to worry about getting high. That is why it is considered a safe and legal product. Every US state recognizes hemp-cultivated CBD as legal. You can buy it from the local store and online.

Country of Use  

You already know that some states in the US allow people to use marijuana and its products. Some countries have legalized marijuana. It would be prudent to enjoy its extracts including CBD vape oil in such places.  

If you are not sure whether CBD is legal in a country, contact its customs department. Ask about whether it allows cannabis use. If it does not, get a no objection certificate from your doctor. It should state that you are using CBD for health purposes.  

FDA-approved hemp products usually have 0.3 % THC, which is entirely acceptable.  

Will the Legality of Cannabidiol Change in Future? 

There are mixed reactions about the future of CBD. THC-free CBD vape oil has no harsh effects on the human body. Therefore, there would be no reason to ban it in the future considering the studies conducted in its favor. 

However, with the controversy surrounding CBD, it is almost impossible to predict its legal status in future. It could get better or worsen. Some countries continue to embrace it while others with strict laws against CBD may adjust or hold their stand. The easiest way to be on the safe side of the law is to be up to date with the legal status of CBD in the country you are in.   

The legality of CBD vape oil depends on is source and whether a given country allows it or not. With the two factors in mind, you are in a position to prevent committing a crime.

Drink Your Weight in With These Seven High Calories Smoothies

It’s quite unusual, but sometimes people aren’t looking for dietary supplements for weight loss, but rather for weight gain. But as tempting as it is to shove anything and everything you come across into your mouth, eating junk can cause other health complications. And instead of muscle gain, just pack you up with empty calorie fat. 

Reasons for Weight Gain 

Gaining weight can, surprisingly, be just as difficult as losing it. If you’re looking to put on some weight, either for medical, athletic or purely aesthetic purposes, below are some really fun smoothie recipes you can make from the comfort of your home, Foods That Help You Gain Weight – What You’ll Need for A Homemade Nutrition Shakes/Smoothie: 

  1. Healthy Carbs, like bananas 
  2. Fibers, like oats, nuts and seeds (they also double as protein sources) 
  3. Healthy fats, like avocado, coconut oil 
  4. Protein powders and some milk 
  5. And a really good blender

Smoothie Recipes for Weight Gain 

The good thing about these nutrition shakes, is that you get a lot of options so you don’t end up bored with your choices. Besides, if you note the “what you’ll need for a homemade…” section, you can easily create your own recipes and maybe share them with others. 

Chocolate Peanut Butter Smoothie

For a smoothie, this is very rich in healthy fats and contains lots of protein. 

Ingredients – 1 cup of milk, 1/2 avocado, 3 tablespoons of natural peanut butter, 1 tablespoon of cacao powder, 1 serving of your protein preferred protein powder, 1/4 teaspoon of cinnamon powder and 1 tablespoon of honey to serve as sweetener. Blend it all and drink up. 

Calorie Booster Smoothie 

This smoothie packs a whopping 2000 calories. So, make it when you have a long day ahead, and won’t have time to eat.
Ingredients – 2 cups of milk, 2 bananas (or 1/2 an avocado), 2 scoops of protein powder, 2 tablespoons of olive oil, 1 cup of ice cream (in the same flavor as your protein powder), 1/2 cup of oats, 4 tablespoons of peanut butter.  

Instructions – soak the oats in water for a few minutes before blending them in with the rest of the ingredients. Let the protein powder and the peanut butter be added in last, so the other ingredients can mix well. 

Walnut Protein Shakes 

Another meal replacement shakes rich in healthy fats packing high calories. You can switch it up with the chocolate peanut butter smoothie so you can experience different flavors. 

Ingredients- 1 cup of walnuts, 1 scoop of protein powder, 1 banana, 1 cup of spinach, 1/2 avocado, 1/2 Apple, 1 tablespoon of coconut oil (optional). 

Instruction – walnuts are tough, so soak them in water for about 30 mins. You may want to start blending your walnut first before adding other ingredients, so you can get a smooth texture. 

Vegan Paleo Protein Smoothie 

Contains absolutely no foods with faces on them, but still packed with enough protein to build up your muscles. 

Ingredients – 1 cup of almond milk, I scoop of vegan protein powder, 1 banana, 2 tablespoons of coconut oil, 1/2 cup of mixed nuts. 

Instruction – as with all smoothies with nuts as ingredients, soak them and blend them first before adding all other ingredients. Add your vegan protein powder last, so it won’t settle at the bottom of the blender. 

High Calories Green Smoothie 

Unlike diet supplements for weight loss, which will require normal green smoothies, high calorie green nutrition shakes are made with extra high calorie foods. 

Ingredients – 1/2 cup of dates, 3 bananas, 1 cup of kale, 1 cup of spinach, 1/2 cup of frozen blueberries, 1 tablespoon of olive oil, 1 cup of milk and 2 scoops of protein powder. 

Instructions – pit your dates, then blend all the ingredients together. 

Fruit Cocktail Smoothie 

Yummy mixture of fruits, vegetables and nuts to fill you up. 

Ingredients – 3 bananas, 1 cup of frozen blueberries, 1 cup of frozen raspberries, 1 cup of frozen strawberries, 1 tablespoon of almond butter, 1/4 cup of dates, 1 cup of kale, 1 tablespoon of olive oil and 2 scoops of your protein powder. 

Instructions – pit the dates, then blend them in with all your frozen ingredients. When you get your desired consistency, add in the rest of your ingredients and blend. 

Banana, Strawberry & Peanut Butter Smoothie 

A balanced mixture of fruits and protein smoothie, great way to gain more muscles. 

Ingredients – 3/4 cup of fresh yoghurt, 1 cup of frozen strawberries, 2 tablespoons of full fat milk, 1 banana, 2 tablespoons of organic peanut butter. 

Blend it all up and drink. 

While gaining weight can be as tough as losing it, you’re better off because it’s easier gaining weight on nutrition shakes you’ve made yourself than relying on weight loss supplements for women and men peddled by profit focused firms. 

If you don’t like something, you can always switch it up for a more enjoyable alternative. Besides, you’ve already seen 7 recipes, so you can pick one for each day of the week.

Updated Herbalife Review: Is This Weight Loss Shake Safe?

The weight loss industry is booming and numerous weight loss products are being constantly released in the market. A lot of people are desiring to live healthy lives and many companies have taken advantage of this. One of the companies that have rapidly grown in popularity is Herbalife which manufactures some of the best meal replacement shakes. Although herbal shake is said to be plant-based, there are growing concerns about its safety. To understand the ingredients and functions of this product below is an unbiased herbalife shake review.  

Herbalife Shake Ingredients  

The safety of herbalife shakes heavily relies on its ingredients and their functions in the body. The active ingredients found in this meal replacement shake include: 

  • Soy Protein Isolate

Soy is a protein-rich supplement that is known to have numerous health benefits. It is commonly used with some of the best meal replacement shakes thanks to its ability to enhance the growth of lean muscles, to reduce risks of cancers and the onset of menopause. However, soy protein isolate has also been listed among the top GMO foods which have negative health effects.

  • Fiber Blend

The popular formula 1 herbalife shake contains 3g of fiber which helps to suppress the appetite and reduce food cravings. 

  • Digestion Enzymes

They help to enhance protein digestion and regularity. 

  • Sugar and Sweeteners

This meal replacement contains natural sweeteners which are used to enhance the flavor of this shake. 

  • Calcium

It has vital importance in multiple cellular processes. Calcium is mainly used to enhance the strength of bones and teeth. 

  • Vitamin A

It helps to enhance the appearance of the skin, bones, tissues, and teeth. Vitamin A is commonly known as retinol and it gives the eye its pigment and improves vision in low light conditions. 

  • Vitamin C

Vitamin C is found mostly in fruits and it is an essential nutrient which helps to protect the body by enhancing immunity. It also prevents the risk of cardiovascular diseases, reduces wrinkles, prenatal diseases among others. Vitamin C helps to protect the body cells by keeping them healthy through the production of collagen which is important for blood vessels, bones and skin. 

  • Vitamin E

The best meal replacement shakes contain antioxidants which help to repair worn out muscles and enhance the growth of body cells. Vitamin E is mainly used with herbalife shake because of its antioxidant properties. The antioxidants help to enhance the immunity of the body by killing free radicals that pose health risks. It is used to treat diseases such as cancer, diabetes and it also protects the skin against aging. 

  • Magnesium

It helps to maintain normal blood pressure, control heart rate and to enhance the strength of bones. A lot of people take meals with inadequate amounts of magnesium and herbalife caters to this by providing sufficient amounts of magnesium. 

  • Niacin

Niacin, commonly known as Vitamin B3 provides the body with essential health benefits such as balancing the cholesterol levels in the body and reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases.

How Herbalife Shake Works 

Herbalife shake is one of the best meal replacement shakes which can be used to effectively shed weight. The low-calorie shake is used as a meal replacement once or twice a day. Herbalife reviews indicate that this shake works by creating a feeling of satiety and fullness. Because it is a supplement which contains low amounts of calories than a normal real meal, it creates a calorie deficit in the body which leads to weight loss. 

The Side Effects of Using Herbalife shake 

Herbalife reviews indicate that there is a strong and direct relationship between this shake and significant weight loss. So does it have any side effects? Herbalife shake has been specifically formulated for individuals who want to lose weight. Apart from soy protein isolate protein which is said to be genetically modified, then this product is one of the best meal replacement shakes that you can use for weight loss. It has numerous health benefits which are not only good for physical appearances but also emotional well-being. This herbal shake helps to boost the confidence levels of the user and improving their overall mood. 

However, Herbalife reviews show that large amounts of this shake can cause potential side effects such as dehydration, frequent urination, gas, fatigue, and others hence it is therefore important for the user to ensure that they consume only adequate amounts of this shake. 

Final Thoughts

Herbalife is a great meal replacement shake. It provides users with healthy nutrition, weight control and the much-needed energy for workouts. Anyone can enjoy using this meal replacement plan because it has been formulated with natural and safe ingredients which effectively promote weight loss. It is an incredible and convenient shake that is easy and simple to make and it can be consumed on the go. If you are going to use Herbalife shake, there is no need to diet since the portions have enough nutrients which are required by the body.

Top Benefits of Using Phentermine 37.5 as Your Weight Loss Solution

The world today is actively encouraging living a healthy life. Part of this means losing excess fat in an effort to attain that great appealing figure you have always wanted. The market has hence been flooded with various diet pills that assist in decreasing your excess fats. Pills like the Phentermine 37.5 have managed to reap amazing results on its users by decreasing their appetite and in turn inducing weight loss. It has allowed a great number of people to live a healthy life achieving their desired body shape and sizes becoming one of the most trusted diet pills on the market today. 

So why use Phentermine 37.5? 

  1. FDA approved.Phentermine 37.5 has managed to gain the favor of most health experts and attain the approval of both the FDA and Clinics all over the world. This is mainly due to the results posted by its users. As one of the best weight loss formulas, Phentermine 37.5 stimulates the release of certain chemicals from the brain. These chemicals control our appetite making the user less likely to obsess on eating. This has made Phentermine 37.5 the perfect recommendation for obese personalities with a compulsion to keep eating. It has been proven especially helpful to patients at medical risk due to weight issues. FRA approval assures users that this product is safe for human use in all of the United States.
  2. Both short term and long term useUse of Phentermine 37.5 is effective on both short-term and long-term basis. The drug allows the user to suppress their appetite in both situations, therefore, helping you control your weight gain during the period. Phentermine 37.5 also works to help your body break down excess fats. These pills target excess fats and stimulate metabolism to consume them. The effect, in this case, is fast and efficient guaranteeing weight loss over short periods of time. This approach is unique since it guaranteesyo only lose excess fats. In this case, you do not destroy or weaken your muscle tissues. Use of pills that destroy muscles may give rise to more complications in the long run. with Phentermine 37.5, you get to enjoy weight loss in a safe and healthy manner. 
  3. Easy resultsMore often than not, most people choose the easy way out by taking pills too strong that they ultimately destroy their muscle tissues or too weak that they do not work at all. Phentermine 37.5 works to help you lose weight without any drawbacks. To achieve the best results, you may use Phentermine 37.5 diet pills along with other measures such as a healthy diet and exercises. The pills help hasten the effects of exercises and diet.What to know before taking Phentermine 37.5These diet pills work best with persons who follow strict weight loss schedules.

You can follow a constructive diet plan with fruits and vegetables to replace junk foods and colas that offer empty calories. Use of organic foods such as the cucumber and tomatoes. Regular exercise also works to greatly enhance the effects of the pills. You should come up with a regular exercise schedule that will help you lose weight. Joining a gym, for instance, is a good idea or even getting a hobby that encourages exercise. This may include cycling, swimming and walking among other exercises. The pills are available as capsules, resin capsules, and tablets. You are encouraged to take the pills about 30 minutes before pills for the best results.  

The use of Phentermine 37.5, healthy diet and regular exercise guarantees the fastest results in the safest, healthiest means possible.SummaryPhentermine 37.5 is the ultimate weight loss tablet for you. It helps cut down body weight by reducing your appetite. Reduction in eating frequencies offer quick advances in weight loss since no weight is being added. The pills also break down your excess fats to further hasten the weight loss process.  

Phentermine 37.5 has been rated as one of the best weight loss formulae that work over short periods. Reviews on the product assure that its work is not a gamble but rather a sure thing. You can get Phentermine 37.5 today and start on your healthy diet and exercise to get into shape in record time. Visit to learn more about Phentermine 37.5.

Chiropractor Austin: How a Good Chiropractor Can Help You with Your Pain

Chiropractic therapy primarily involves the manipulation of the spine to correct any misalignments one may have. However, the practice is not purely confined to spine adjustment. Some of the other aspects that a chiropractor deals with include the manipulation of different parts of the body using the hands to facilitate healing. 

Aside from using different kinds of chiropractic treatments to help alleviate body pain and improve one’s inner healing capabilities, chiropractors also combine their treatment methods with other conventional one to help patients heal quicker and longer, particularly when it comes to joint injuries. 

What are the advantages of chiropractic treatments? 

Unlike other conventional medical treatments, chiropractic remedies do not involve the use of toxic drugs. Healing is achieved by tapping into the body’s capabilities to bring an end pain. It also involves locating and treating the primary cause of the body’s pain or discomfort, and not just the symptoms associated with it. As a result, a good therapist like the one at T98 Rehab, a chiropractor Austin based, can help you get rid of your neck, lower back, joint, or whiplash issues. 

How well-known is chiropractic therapy? 

Chiropractic health case is officially recognized by the U.S. government and is designated as a complementary health care alternative. Based on different studies, this sort of healthcare treatment has managed to gain wide popularity over recent years, with the NHIS showing that in the year 2000, 74% of the U.S. population stated they had received chiropractic treatment at one time another in their life. Half of those interviewed also reported having benefited in some way from this alternative form of treatment. Since then, chiropractic health care has continued to gain wide notoriety amongst different segments of the society. This has also made such professionals more accessible to the public. It is also important to note that Texas is one of the leading states when it comes to chiropractic health care services, which means finding a good Chiropractor Austin is not a hard task. 

What happens when you go to see a chiropractor? 

During a standard chiropractic appointment, the physician will examine you using different equipment to determine the root cause of your pain or discomfort. They will also ask you questions about your medical history, the kinds of medications you have been taking, and any other thing that may be relevant to your case. Afterwards, they may perform tests such as x-rays to come up with a treatment plan. In most cases, it will be largely based on your spinal area or affected joints depending on your condition. The treatment plan may also involve manipulation of the affected body part, as well as other areas that may be troubling you. 

Chiropractic treatments techniques: 

Chiropractors use a wide range of techniques when treating body pain, some of which include heat therapies, ice therapies, rehabilitative exercises designed to restore joint functions, relaxation techniques, and even offering dieting advice. According to research, chiropractic treatments have been known to help with issues such as: 

  • Whiplash 
  • Migraines 
  • Neck pain 
  • Headaches 
  • Pain in the upper body joints 

Even though chiropractic treatments are all-natural, patients can still experience some discomfort or soreness after a session. In case of any other side effects, you should talk to your chiropractor Austin to determine if it is the result of the treatment. 


A chiropractor Austin undergoes intense training just like their health care counterparts in conventional medical institutions. Chiropractic colleges are also accredited by the U.S. department of education. A regular course takes four years to finish and classes take place both in the classrooms and in the field involving actual patients. It is also important to note that different states tend to have their own regulations when it comes to chiropractic health care. 

Are you in search of a chiropractor in Austin, TX?

If you happen to need some good and effective chiropractic services for your body pains, then you are in luck, because you cannot miss a professional and reputable chiropractor in Austin. However, it is important that you don’t just go to anyone who claims to be a chiropractor. The best thing you can do is to ask them questions before scheduling an appointment, look at their reviews, and talk to any other individuals who their patients at one time. By doing all this, you cannot go wrong.

The hotter our body temperature, the more our bodies speed up a key defense system that fights against tumors, wounds or infections — ScienceDaily

The hotter our body temperature, the more our bodies speed up a key defence system that fights against tumours, wounds or infections, new research by a multidisciplinary team of mathematicians and biologists from the Universities of Warwick and Manchester has found.

The researchers have demonstrated that small rises in temperature (such as during a fever) speed up the speed of a cellular ‘clock’ that controls the response to infections — and this new understanding could lead to more effective and fast-working drugs which target a key protein involved in this process.

Biologists found that inflammatory signals activate ‘Nuclear Factor kappa B’ (NF-κB) proteins to start a ‘clock’ ticking, in which NF-κB proteins move backwards and forwards into and out of the cell nucleus, where they switch genes on and off.

This allows cells to respond to a tumour, wound or infection. When NF-κB is uncontrolled, it is associated with inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn’s disease, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis.

At a body temperature of 34 degrees, the NF-κB clock slows down. At higher temperatures than the normal 37 degree body temperature (such as in fever, 40 degrees), the NF-κB clock speeds up.

Mathematicians at the University of Warwick’s Systems Biology Centre calculated how temperature increases make the cycle speed up.

They predicted that a protein called A20 — which is essential to avoid inflammatory disease — might be critically involved in this process. The experimentalists then removed A20 from cells and found that the NF-kB clock lost its sensitivity to increases in temperature.

Lead mathematician Professor David Rand, Professor of Mathematics and a member of the University of Warwick’s Zeeman Institute for Systems Biology and Infectious Disease Epidemiology (SBIDER), explained that in normal life the 24 hour body clock controls small (1.5 degree) changes in body temperature.

He commented: “the lower body temperature during sleep might provide a fascinating explanation into how shift work, jet lag or sleep disorders cause increased inflammatory disease”

Mathematician Dan Woodcock from the University of Warwick said: “this is a good example of how mathematical modelling of cells can lead to useful new biological understanding.”

While the activities of many NF-kB controlled genes were not affected by temperature, a key group of genes showed altered profiles at the different temperatures. These temperature sensitive genes included key inflammatory regulators and controllers of cell communication that can alter cell responses.

This study shows that temperature changes inflammation in cells and tissues in a biologically organised way and suggests that new drugs might more precisely change the inflammatory response by targeting the A20 protein.

Professor Mike White, lead biologist from the University of Manchester, said the study provides a possible explanation of how both environmental and body temperature affects our health:

“We have known for some time that influenza and cold epidemics tend to be worse in the winter when temperatures are cooler. Also, mice living at higher temperatures suffer less from inflammation and cancer. These changes may now be explained by altered immune responses at different temperatures.”

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Inpatient opioid use and insufficient weaning pre-discharge may increase outpatient opioid prescriptions — ScienceDaily

According to the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine scientists who conducted the study, theirs is the first large-scale evaluation of the impact of in-hospital opioid prescribing on post-discharge opioid use.

“Most previous studies of opioid use in health care have focused on the outpatient setting,” said lead study author Jason Kennedy, MS, research project manager in Pitt’s Department of Critical Care Medicine. “But opioids are often introduced during hospitalization. That’s something clinicians can control, so we looked at inpatient prescription of these drugs to identify targets that may reduce opioid use once patients are out of the hospital.”

The researchers analyzed the medical records of 357,413 non-obstetrical adults hospitalized between 2010 and 2014 at 12 University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) hospitals in southwestern Pennsylvania. The region is one of the areas of the country where opioid addiction is a major public health problem. The researchers focused on the 192,240 patients who had not received an opioid in the year prior to their hospitalization — otherwise known as “opioid naïve” patients.

Nearly half (48 percent) of these patients received an opioid while hospitalized. After discharge, those patients receiving hospital opioids were more than twice as likely to report outpatient opioid use within 90-days (8.4 percent vs. 4.1 percent).

The study also found that:

  • Those who took an opioid for more than three-quarters of their hospital stay were 32 percent more likely than those who took an opioid for less than one-fourth of their stay to be prescribed an opioid within 90 days of leaving the hospital.
  • Those who used an opioid within 12 hours of discharge were twice as likely as those who stopped taking an opioid more than 24 hours before discharge to be prescribed an opioid within 90 days of leaving the hospital.
  • 33 percent received an opioid during the 24 hours prior to discharge from the hospital.
  • 20 percent of those receiving opioids in the ICU received intravenous opioids on transfer to the medical ward.

The findings suggest some inpatient interventions that might reduce opioid use in outpatient settings, Mr. Kennedy said.

“Reducing use of opiates near the end of a hospital stay, especially in the 24 hours before discharge, may reduce outpatient prescription of opioids,” he said. “And weaning ICU patients off of intravenous opioids, the most potent way of administering these pain killers, before transitioning them to the medical ward may also help reduce outpatient usage.”

Further study, ideally with randomized, controlled trials, would be necessary to provide definitive guidance to doctors and other health care providers, he added.

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Scientists find link between increases in local temperature and antibiotic resistance — ScienceDaily

Bacteria have long been thought to develop antibiotic resistance largely due to repeated exposure through over-prescribing. But could much bigger environmental pressures be at play?

Seeking to better understand the distribution of antibiotic resistance across the U.S., a multidisciplinary team of epidemiologists from Boston Children’s Hospital and the University of Toronto have found that higher local temperatures and population densities correlate with a higher degree of antibiotic resistance in common bacterial strains. The findings were published today in Nature Climate Change.

“The effects of climate are increasingly being recognized in a variety of infectious diseases, but so far as we know this is the first time it has been implicated in the distribution of antibiotic resistance over geographies,” says the study’s lead author, Derek MacFadden, MD, an infectious disease specialist and research fellow at Boston Children’s Hospital. “We also found a signal that the associations between antibiotic resistance and temperature could be increasing over time.”

“Estimates outside of our study have already told us that there will already be a drastic and deadly rise in antibiotic resistance in coming years,” says the paper’s co-senior author John Brownstein, PhD, who is Chief Innovation Officer and director of the Computational Epidemiology Group at Boston Children’s and professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School (HMS). “But with our findings that climate change could be compounding and accelerating an increase in antibiotic resistance, the future prospects could be significantly worse than previously thought.”

During their study, the team assembled a large database of U.S. antibiotic resistance information related to E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and S. aureus, pulling from various streams of hospital, laboratory and disease surveillance data documented between 2013 and 2015. Altogether, their database comprised more than 1.6 million bacterial pathogens from 602 unique records across 223 facilities and 41 states.

Not surprisingly, when looking at antibiotic prescription rates across geographic areas, the team found that increased prescribing was associated with increased antibiotic resistance across all the pathogens that they investigated.

Then, comparing the database to latitude coordinates as well as mean and medium local temperatures, the team found that higher local average minimum temperatures correlated the strongest with antibiotic resistance. Local average minimum temperature increases of 10 degrees Celsius were found to be associated with 4.2, 2.2 and 3.6 percent increases in antibiotic resistant strains of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and S. aureus, respectively.

More unsettling still, when looking at population density, the team found that an increase of 10,000 people per square mile was associated with three and six percent respective increases in antibiotic resistance in E. coli and K. pneumoniae, which are both Gram-negative species. In contrast, the antibiotic resistance of Gram-positive S. aureus did not appear to be significantly affected by population density.

“Population growth and increases in temperature and antibiotic resistance are three phenomena that we know are currently happening on our planet,” says the study’s co-senior author Mauricio Santillana, PhD, who is a faculty member in the Computational Health Informatics Program at Boston Children’s and an assistant professor at HMS. “But until now, hypotheses about how these phenomena relate to each other have been sparse. We need to continue bringing multidisciplinary teams together to study antibiotic resistance in comparison to the backdrop of population and environmental changes.”

MacFadden says the transmission factor is of particular interest for further scientific research.

“As transmission of antibiotic resistant organisms increases from one host to another, so does the opportunity for ongoing evolutionary selection of resistance due to antibiotic use,” MacFadden says. “We hypothesize that temperature and population density could act to facilitate transmission and thus increases in antibiotic resistance.”

“The bottom line is that our findings highlight a dire need to invest more research efforts into improving our understanding of the interconnectedness of infectious disease, medicine and our changing environment,” Brownstein concludes.

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Chemists could point way to new antibiotics — ScienceDaily

In a discovery that points to potential new antibiotic medicines, scientists from Rice University and the University of Michigan have deciphered the workings of a common but little-understood bacterial switch that cuts off protein production before it begins.

Many gram-positive bacteria use T-box riboswitches to regulate production of proteins that utilize amino acids, the basic building blocks of all proteins. A study in Nature Communications describes how one of these switches, a glycine regulator in Bacillus subtilis, flips and locks into the “on” position via a snap-lock mechanism. Engaging the lock increases production of proteins that utilize glycine, the simplest amino acid. Researchers also detailed the switch’s “off” position: A single glycine at the tip of the locking arm blocks protein production.

“T-box riboswitches are intriguing because they are regulated — turned on or off — by molecules central to protein production,” said study co-author Edward Nikonowicz, professor of biosciences at Rice. “While they were discovered a quarter century ago, it’s not been entirely clear how they operate. By highlighting their structural and kinetic details, we hope to spur interest in these switches as potential targets for new antibiotics.”

New antibiotics could help avert a looming health crisis, Nikonowicz said. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expects antibiotic-resistant bacteria to kill at least 23,000 people in the U.S. this year, and if current trends go unchecked, the World Health Organization estimates that by 2050, drug-resistant pathogens will kill 10 million people per year worldwide.

T-box riboswitches like the one highlighted in the new study are vital to many gram-positive bacteria, a broad class that includes pathogens that cause tuberculosis, gangrene, botulism, anthrax, inflammation of the inner heart lining and other diseases.

T-box riboswitches are located on strands of messenger RNA (mRNA), blueprints for proteins that are copied directly from a cell’s DNA. In complex organisms such as animals and plants, the writing, or “transcription,” of mRNA takes place in a vault-like DNA storage facility called the nucleus. Only after mRNA leaves the vault can its message be used, or “translated,” into a new protein. Because bacteria have no nucleus, “transcription” of mRNA and “translation,” decoding of mRNA by ribosomes to make new proteins, happen in close proximity.

“Riboswitches are common in many bacteria, but not in humans, making them such attractive targets for new drugs,” said study co-author Nils Walter, the Francis S. Collins Collegiate Professor of Chemistry, Biophysics and Biological Chemistry at the University of Michigan. “T-box riboswitches regulate transcription, the writing of the messenger RNA itself, but use a locking arm borrowed from the translation machinery, making it a unique jack-of-all-trades.”

The mRNA blueprints are used to build proteins, the workhorses of biology. Cells employ millions of proteins at a given time, but each of these is made from the same 20 building blocks, the amino acids that T-box riboswitches help regulate in gram-positive bacteria. To make a protein, cells string amino acids end to end, like beads on a necklace, based on the order specified in mRNA instructions.

The locking arm trigger in the glycine T-box riboswitch is part of another molecule called transfer RNA (tRNA). There are many types of tRNA in cells, but each acts like a kind of car, shuttling payloads to the ribosome, where proteins are strung together. Each type of tRNA can only carry one type of amino acid.

In the new study, Walter and Nikonowicz designed an experiment in which glycine-specific tRNA molecules, some loaded with glycine and others unloaded, would pass by and randomly attach to a T-box riboswitch.

“Ed’s team was able to attach a fluorescent marker to the tRNA in a such a way that it wouldn’t interfere with their binding,” Walter said. “My lab employed a technique called ‘single molecule fluorescence microscopy’ to probe the dynamic associations of single T-box riboswitches with the tRNA, either when the glycine cargo was attached or not.”

Each time a tRNA with a fluorescent tag attached took up a position on the T-box riboswitch, a bright signal appeared in the microscope. By measuring exactly how long the signal lasted, and thus how long the molecules stayed in position, the team was able to reconstruct the binding speed and ultimately the locking mechanism for the switch.

Nikonowicz said he and Walter began the glycine T-box riboswitch project about 2 1/2 years ago.

“Glycine was the simplest case, in part because there’s an additional domain in the T-box sensing other amino acids,” he said. “There are questions about what this domain does and how it operates. Given what we’ve already learned about the glycine T-box riboswitch, I’d like to extend this work to see what we can learn from other types of T-boxes.”

Walter added the findings could also pay off in the emerging field of RNA nanotechnology, in which scientists are attempting to use RNA templates for precision engineering of complex structures.

“In the active, locked position, the T-box-tRNA complex has a very stable three-dimensional shape,” he said. “It’s possible these could be exploited for ultra-stable ring-like complexes in novel biomimetic architectures.”

Replacement neurons, blood vessels fill in stroke cavity; gel provides scaffolding — ScienceDaily

In a first-of-its-kind finding, a new stroke-healing gel helped regrow neurons and blood vessels in mice with stroke-damaged brains, UCLA researchers report in the May 21 issue of Nature Materials.

“We tested this in laboratory mice to determine if it would repair the brain in a model of stroke, and lead to recovery,” said Dr. S. Thomas Carmichael, Professor and Chair of neurology at UCLA. “This study indicated that new brain tissue can be regenerated in what was previously just an inactive brain scar after stroke.”

The results suggest that such an approach may someday be a new therapy for stroke in people, said Dr. Tatiana Segura, a former Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at UCLA who is now a professor at Duke University. Carmichael and Segura collaborated on the study.

The brain has a limited capacity for recovery after stroke and other diseases. Unlike some other organs in the body, such as the liver or skin, the brain does not regenerate new connections, blood vessels or new tissue structures. Tissue that dies in the brain from stroke is absorbed, leaving a cavity, devoid of blood vessels, neurons or axons, the thin nerve fibers that project from neurons.

To see if healthy tissue surrounding the cavity could be coaxed into healing the stroke injury, Segura engineered a gel to inject into the stroke cavity that thickens to mimic the properties of brain tissue, creating a scaffolding for new growth.

The gel is infused with molecules that stimulate blood vessel growth and suppress inflammation, since inflammation results in scars and impedes regrowth of functional tissue.

After 16 weeks, stroke cavities in mice contained regenerated brain tissue, including new neural networks — a result that had not been seen before. The mice with new neurons showed improved motor behavior, though the exact mechanism wasn’t clear.

“The new axons could actually be working,” said Segura. “Or the new tissue could be improving the performance of the surrounding, unharmed brain tissue.”

The gel was eventually absorbed by the body, leaving behind only new tissue.

This research was designed to explore recovery in acute stroke, or the period immediately following stroke — in mice, that is five days; in humans, that is two months. Next, Carmichael and Segura are determining if brain tissue can be regenerated in mice long after the stroke injury. More than 6 million Americans are living with the long-term outcomes of stroke, known as chronic stroke.

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Materials provided by University of California – Los Angeles. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.